Recorded in the various forms including Vero, Veron, Verona, Veronese, Veronesi, and including the female first names and subsequently surnames of Veronica and Veronique, this is a French and Italian surname, but ultimately of Roman (Latin) origins. The etymology even of the city of Verona is uncertain, but as most place names and hence later surnames, usually have fairly simple origins connected with the natural features found in the countryside, the derivation is probably from the ancient word 'ver' meaning alder trees, and hence one who lived at such a place, although the word 'vera' could also meaning river, so that is another possible connection and origin. Topographical surnames were usually the first to be created, a local landowner would for convenience adopt the name of his manor as his surname. In the case of the female names which became surnames such as Vero, Veronica and Veronique, these became surnames and were adopted by any sons because the mother was the land owner in her own right, the father being deceased. The first name in particular was also given a boost by St Veronique, who was supposed to have seen a vision of Christ's face at Calvaire in France. Recordings in France are erratic, many registers being destroyed during the Revolution of 1792. Examples from Englkand and France include: Andrew Vero who married Mary Brayne at St Martins in the Field, Westminster, on November 3rd 1615, and that of Jean Veronique and Denise Aubry, married at St Germain en Laye, Meurthe et Moselle, on August 8th 1713. It is unclear as to when the name was introduced into England, although possibly by Huguenot refugees of the 18th century. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.