This is an English surname of great antiquity. It is medieval and occupational, and was given to one who lived at one of the great houses otherwise known as temples. These were maintained by the Knights Templar, better known to history as the Crusaders. The Templar name arose because of the claimed association with the site of the original temple of Jerusalem. In England Templeman is or was particularly associated with Cambridgeshire where the Kinght Templars held the manors of Isleham and Duxford. Early examples of the surname although not strictly hereditary include Johannes de Templo in the London rolls of 1248, and Serviens Templariorum in the Subsidy Tax rolls of Cambridge in 1277. An interesting name bearer was Peter Templeman (1711-1769), who trained as a physician, was granted an MD at Leyden in 1737, but who became the keeper of the reading room at the British Museum. The coat of arms associated with the name and granted in Scotland has the blazon of a red shield, charged with a silver temple, on a black chief a gold star. This is believed to have denoted someone who had distinguished himself in command of a battle against the Muslims. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Templeman. This was dated 1240, in the Fines Court rolls of Yorkshire, during the reign of King Henry 111rd, 1216 - 1272. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.