This name is occupational in origin and was given to one who was employed at, or who lived in one of the houses (temples) maintained by the Crusading order, the Knights Templar - so called because of their claimed association with the site of the old temple in Jerusalem. The surname was particularly associated with Cambridgeshire where the Templars had manors at Isleham and Duxford. Alternate forms of the name were 'serviens Templariorum' (1277) and 'de Templo' (1248). An interesting name bearer was Peter Templeman (1711-1769), physician (M.D. Leyden 1737) and keeper of the reading room at the British Museum. The Coat of Arms most associated with the family and granted in Scotland in the 16th century has the blazon of a red shield, thereon a silver temple, on a black chief a gold star, denoting someone who has distinguished himself in command of a battle. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Templeman, which was dated 1240, in the Fine Court Rolls of Yorkshire, during the reign of King Henry 111, known as the Frenchman 1216 - 1272. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.