This most interesting surname has two possible derivations. Firstly it may be of Anglo-Saxon origin, and a locational name from "Staines", a market town and parish in Middlesex, which was recorded as "Stane" in 1009, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, and as "Stanes" in the Domesday Book of 1086. The placename itself is composed of the Olde English pre 7th century "stan", stone, hence the reference may be to a milestone on the Roman road that ran through the town, while the vocalic development seems to be the result of Norman influence. Secondly the name may have been a survival of an Old Scandinavian topographical name for "a dweller at the stone" or from an Old Norse personal name "Steinis", both from the Old Scandinavian "steinn", stone. In the modern idiom the surname can be found as Staynes, Staines, Stains and Stanes. The Book of Fees of Kent, of circa 1216, mentions one William de Staines, while another early recording is that of William de Stanes, rector of Welborne (Norfolk Feet of Fees, 1328). Sir Thomas Staines (1776 - 1830), was a captain in the navy who served on "Foudroyant" under Nelson, and accidentally struck on Pitcairn's island in 1813, and sent an account of its colony to England. A Coat of Arms was granted to a Staines family depicting two black bars engraved on a silver shield. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard de Stanes, which was dated 1275, The Hundred Rolls of Kent, during the reign of King Edward 1, known as "The Hammer of the Scots", (1272 - 1307). Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.