This interesting and unusual surname has two possible sources. Firstly, the surname may be of Norman origin, introduced into England after the Conquest of 1066, and was a locational name from "Chandai" in Orne. The placename was recorded in the early 12th Century as "Canziacum", and is derived from the Gallo-Roman personal name "Candius", with the local suffix "-acum". Locational surnames were developed when former inhabitants of a place moved to another area, usually to seek work, and were best identified by the name of their birthplace. In some instances the surname may be of Scottish origin, deriving from a short form of Alexander. The given name Alexander (meaning "Protector of men") was introduced into Scotland earlier than into England. Queen Margaret, in the 11th Century, christened her third son by the name, which she brought from Hungary, where she had spent her youth; he became King Alexander 1, 1107 - 1124. This ensured that the given name was spread throughout the kingdom, often as "Alisander", while "Sandy" has become a national name in the Lowlands. Magister Robert Shaunde was prebendary of Arnaldton (1522). One Thomas Shand was christened on February 28th 1549, at Howden, Yorkshire, and Robert, son of Henrie and Elizabeth Shand, was christened on January 31st 1686, at Colinton, Midlothian. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas Shan, which was dated 1379, in the "Poll Tax Returns of Yorkshire", during the reign of King Richard 11, known as "Richard of Bordeaux," 1377 - 1399. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.