Recorded in over one hunded spellings and found throughout the countries of Europe, this interesting and ancient surname is now widespread in most Christian countries. It is a 'Crusader' name. That is to say a name of biblical or hebrew origins, which was introduced into Europe originally as a First or Christian name after the famous Crusades of the 12th century. It is from the word "shalom" meaning peace, and as such the most popular spelling was Salomon, the form used in the Vulgate, which was the 4th Century version of the Bible. Solomon is the form used in the Geneva Bible and the Authorized Version, and it from this that many modern spellings derive. The personal name was widespread among Christians in the Middle Ages, and later was also used as a nickname surname for a particularly wise man, or theatrically for someone who had played the part of King Solomon in a miracle play. Examples of the surname spellings include Salaman, Salomon, Salman, Salmond, Salmoni, Sammon and Sammonds. In England where the earliest surname recordings are to be found Robert Salemon was listed in the tax registers known as the 'Feet of Fines' of Lancashire in 1212, and Richard Salamon appears in the Mayors List of the city of London in 1301. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as the Poll Tax, although iother countries had there own versions. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.