The prophet Mohammed urged his flock to use as names those of good augury, which would also express hope for a long and happy life. These names included: Barakat (blessings); Zafar (victory); Khush (nice); Khushdil (happy heart); and Sadat "felicity". All these names have a religious aspect expressing the parents gratitude both to god and the prophet. This type of name is found in the west, and particularly in Germany, where they are known as "ornamental", but they have little religious significance, or if they had religious origins, such as the name Theodore (god-given), this is now lost. Islamic names are formed according to a strict formula, which incorporates the fathers, mothers, and forefathers name, plus the place of origin and religious allegiance. Thus, Sadat would not have originally been recorded as a surname, but merely part of one, it is recent western influence which has created the need for simple "surnames". Islamic names have rarely been recorded in the Romanic alphabet, and Sadat is no exception, and therefore we are unable to quote early recordings. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of which was dated during the reign of The most famous holder of the surname in the modern format was Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt from 1970 to 1981, and architect of peaceful coexistence in the Middle East. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.