As a Scottish surname, Rose is recorded in Scotland from the early 14th Century onwards; the family of Rose of Kilravock, near the town of Nairn, are believed to be a branch of the ancient de Ross clan. This family came originally from Yorkshire, and held a large amount of land in the northern part of Ayrshire during the 12th Century. The de Ross family were of Norman origin, where the name is locational, from Rots near Caen in Normandy; the place is thought to be named with the Germanic element "rod", clearing. The family were established in Kent in 1130, and one Godfrey de Ros is the first of the name to be recorded in Scotland; he witnessed a charter in Gilmerton, near Edinburgh, in 1189. The branch of the family that took the name Rose have mostly stayed around Nairn and Inverness, and have kept an unusually unbroken pedigree, documented in the book cited below. One William Rose was a charter witness in Inverness in 1360. The marriage of Walter Rose and Elspet McKilican was recorded in Inverness in March 1654. The christening of one John Rose was recorded at Ardersier, near Inverness, in 1741. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Muriel de Roys, which was dated 1333, "A Genealogical Deduction of the Family of Rose of Kilravock", 1848, during the reign of King David 11, King of Scotland, 1329 - 1371. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.