This most interesting surname is of Old Flemish (Dutch) origin, and may be either a locational name, from a place called "Rodenbourg" in Luxembourg; or a topographical name for "a dweller by a red fortified castle" or by "a fortified castle on cleared ground", both deriving from the Middle High German "rotenburc", composed of either "rot", red or "roden", cleared land, with the second element "burc", "berg", fortified place, castle. The name is widespread as "Rodenburg" in the Netherlands and is found in early records as "Rot(t)enberger" in medieval German states. Coats of Arms were granted to families in Holland called Rodenborg (Utrecht), Rodenburg (Amsterdam) and Rodenburgh (Amsterdam), and in Germany, Rodenborch (Hambourg) and Rodenberg (Rhineland). The Coat of Arms for "Rodenborg" (Utrecht) depicts three red castles on a gold shield. Henrica Van Rodenburch (see below) married Gerrit Van Egmond in 1382 at Markelo, Overijssel, Holland, while Jan, son of Jan and Angnietje Rodenburg, was christened on March 25th 1631 in Amsterdam. Caspar Rotenberger was christened on October 30th 1578 at Jagstkreis, Wuertt, in Germany. Antje Rodenburgh married Tjebbe Sjoerds on August 21st 1686 at Sneek, Freiesland, Holland. Lidia Rodenburg was a German immigrant from Leipzig, who left Bremen for New York, aboard the "Hausa", arriving there on June 24th 1864. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Henrica Van Rodenburch, which was dated 1358, born at Markelo, Overijssel, Netherlands, during the reign of King Charles 1V of Luxembourg, 1348 - 1378. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.