There are two possible sources of this interesting medieval name, the first being that it derives from the Old French personal name 'Reinger', or 'Rainger', composed of the Germanic elements 'ragin', counsel and 'geri', spear. This name was introduced by the Normans after the Conquest of 1066, and one of the original namebearers (see below), Richard Renger, bought an estate in Essex, which was known as 'Renggers' in 1318, and is now represented by Ringer's Farm in Terling, Essex. However, the name may also be an occupational name for a maker of rings or for a bell ringer, deriving from the Middle English ring(en), a development of the Old English pre 7th Century 'hringan'. Amongst the sample recordings in Essex is the christening of John Ringer on March 17th 1579, at Earl's Colne, and the marriage of Thomas Ringer and Lettes Johnsone, on February 5th 1562, at St. Leonards. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard Renger, which was dated 1225, in the Calander of the Patent Rolls, London, during the reign of King Henry 111, known as 'The Frenchman', 1216-1272. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.