Recorded in many forms including Reynold, Reynolds, Renaud, Regnaud, Reignould, Rignall, Rignold, Rignoldes, and Reignolds and meriting no less than forty five entries in the British National Biography as well as being the holder of at least twenty eight English and Irish coats of arms, this is a surname of English, but ultimately Norman and Germanic origins. It is now regarded as Anglo-Saxon pre 7th Century, and was, prior to the 1066 Norman Invasion, a personal name comprising the elements "Ragin" meaning "counsel" and "wald" - "to rule". The first recording of the personal name is as the Latinised "Reginaldus" in the Domesday Book of 1086; the surname being first recorded in the 13th Century. The additive "s" when it occurs indicates the patronymic "son of Reynold". The London church records include one Annam Reignolds who married Richarus Mosse on February 1st 1607, at St. Martin in the Fields, Westminster, and Judeth Reignould was christened on December 15th 1611, at St. Dunstan's, Stepney. Barbara, daughter of Barbara and Thomas Rignoldes, was christened in St. Martin in the Fields, Westminster, on October 14th 1611. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Reynold, which was dated 1273, in the Hundred Rolls of Cambridgeshire, during the reign of King Edward 1, known as "The Hammer of the Scots", 1272 - 1307. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.