Recorded in many spellings including Reynalds, Reynolds, Reynoollds, Reynoolds, Reynoollds, Renals, Rennels, Reynands, Runnalls, and Reynoldson, is of pre 6th century. It is a patronymic form of Reynold, from a Germanic personal name Raginwald, meaning "counsel-rule", and was very popular with its indication of powers of both wisdom and war. First introduced into England by 8th century Vikings in the form of Rognvaldr, it was complimented in 1066 when the Norman-French introduced their version "Reinald". The first surname examples were 12th century and early examples include John Reynolds, in the Hundred Rolls of Cambridgeshire in 1273, and John Reynalds in the Subsidy Rolls of Worcestershire in 1275. Ricardus Raynoldson is recorded in the Poll Tax rolls of Yorkshire in 1379, whilst Robert Reyghnoldes was married in London in 1617. Later recordings include Robert Rennel, who was married at St Vedasts church, London, in 1772, whilst on January 3rd 1849, Richard Runnalls was a witness at St Pancras Olde Church, London. The first known name holder to settle in New England was Robert Reynolds, who in the very earliest register of Virginia, is recorded as 'being dead at ye plantacon over against James Cittie' on February 16th 1623. The first known coat of arms probably granted by King Edward 111rd (1327 - 1377) has the blazon of an ermine field, charged with a red chevronel, and a chief indented in black. Wilham Reynands appears in the register of Hornchurch Priory, Essex, during the reign of King Henry 11nd, 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.