Recorded in a very large number of spellings which include such as Reynald, Reynold, Renall, Rennel, Rennoll, and the very varied patronymics including Raynales, Reynalds, Reynolds, Reinolds, Renaldes, Renolds, Rennolds, Renals, Renalls, Rennels, Rennles, Renoles, Rennolls, Reynells, Runnalls, Reynoldson, and many others, this is regarded as an English, French, and Scottish surname. It is however ultimately of pre 5th century Gallic-German origins deriving from a pre-Christian personal name originally written as Raginwald meaning "counsel-rule". This name was very popular in ancient times indicating as it does, power and control, at a time after the fall of the Roman Empire, when generally there was none! Introduced into England as "Rognvaldr" in the 8th century, and three centuries later by the Norman-French at the famous Conquest of 1066 as "Reinald", it became one of the first surnames. Early examples of these include John Reynold, recorded in the Hundred Rolls of landowners of Cambridgeshire in 1273, and John Reynalds in the Subsidy Tax Rolls of Worcestershire in 1275. Later examples include Robert Rennels, who was married at St Vedasts church, London, in 1772, whilst in 1849, Richard Runnalls was a witness at St Pancras Old Church, also city of London. The first known name holder settler in America was Robert Reynolds, who in the earliest known register of inhabitants of the colony of Virginia, is recorded as 'being dead at ye plantacon over against James Cittie' on February 16th 1623. The first known coat of arms probably granted by King Edward 111 (1327 - 1377) has the blazon of an ermine field, charged with a red chevronel, and a chief indented in black. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Wilham Reynand. This was dated 1272, in the records of Hornchurch Priory, Essex, during the reign of King Edward 1st, known as "The Hammer of the Scots", 1272 - 1307.