This unusual surname has three distinct possible sources, each with its own history and derivation. Firstly, Renner may be of Anglo-Saxon origin, and an occupational name for a messenger or courier, normally a mounted and armed military servant. The derivation is from the Olde English pre 7th Century "renn(an)", Middle High German "rennen", to run, with the addition of the agent suffix "-er". In its original sense "a man who has to do with", the "-er" designates persons according to their profession or occupation. Job-descriptive surnames originally denoted the actual occupation of the namebearer, and later became hereditary. The second possibility is that Renner is of early medieval Scottish origin, deriving from the Old Gaelic "rannaire", literally "the divider". In Old Gaelic sagas, the "rennairi" carved or distributed portions of food to individual guests. The exact analysis of the word is "rannaim", "I divide" (now "roinn"), plus the agent suffix "-aire". Finally, Renner may be a variant form of "Rayner", itself coming from the Old French personal name "Rainer, Re(i)ner", ultimately from the Old German "Raginhari", a compound of the elements "ragin", counsel, and "hari", army. One Elwynus Renner was noted in the "Register of Dunfermline", Scotland, in 1153, and in 1319 a Richard Renner was recorded in the Subsidy Rolls of Essex. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Aluuinus Rennere, which was dated circa 1134, in the "Episcopal Register of Glasgow", during the reign of King David 1 of Scotland, 1124 - 1153. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.