This ancient surname is usually job descriptive. It derives from the Olde English 'Pinn' meaning a needle or pin, or in a transferred sense - a pine tree. A few name holders will have locational origins from the village of Pinner in Middlesex, however even then the name means much the same 'the place of the pin makers' or possibly 'the pine trees'. A 'pinner' was a highly skilled occupation, and not just restricted to pins and needles, but also wire articles such as baskets and bird cages. There are many forms of the name including Pinner, Piner, Pinor, Pinar, Pyner, Pynner and Penner, as well as the French spellings of Pinar, Pineaux, and Pinard. Early recordings include Richard de Pinner of London in 1275, and there cannot be much doubt where he came from, although Walter Le Pinnere, also of London in 1281, was most definitely a pinmaker. Edward le Peniur of Norfolk in 1275 was apparently a comb maker, and this form derives from the French 'peignour', introduced by the Normans after 1066. However over the centuries the name spellings have become diffused to the point where it is usually impossible to be certain of the origin. Later church recordings include Wynifred Pynner christened at St Margarets, Westminster, on October 6th 1595, Ann Penner, christened at St Marys Church, Putney, on June 27th 1625, and Catherine Piner, who married John Turner at St James Church, Westminster, on April 21st 1772. The coat of arms granted in 1577 has the blazon of a blue field, a silver chevron between three lions heads, ducally crowned in gold. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Adam Le Pinare, which was dated 1244, the pipe rolls of the city of Worcester, during the reign of King Edward 111, known as 'the father of the English navy', 1327 - 1377. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.