Nearly all double-barrelled surnames are the Victorian equivalent of the Anglo-Saxon and early English compound personal name such as "Anselm" (now usually spelled Ansell) which is composed of the elements "Ans" meaning "god" and "Helm" a helmet. The two elements have individual meanings, but not when conjoined. In this case "Shears" a patronymic translating as "The son of Sher" derives from the Olde English "Scir" meaning bright and radiant person, whilst "Phipard", also recorded as Phippard (1690), Fippard (1764) and Phippard (1812) is also a patronymic, this time of Philip (son of Philip), from the Ancient Greek. James Phipard was married to Edward Piers at St. James, London in 1692, The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Phepard (A Huguenot), which was dated 1682, Witness at St. Dunstans Church, Stepney, during the reign of King Charles II "The Merry Monarch", 1660 - 1685. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.