This interesting surname is of Anglo-Saxon and Welsh origin, and is a locational name from Pendlebury in Lancashire, deriving from the Welsh "pen" meaning hill, top, head, plus the Olde English pre 7th Century "hyll", hill, and the Olde English "burh", fort, town. The placename is recorded as "Penelbiri" (1202), "Penlebire" (1206) in the Pipe Rolls, and as "Penhilbyry" (1284) in the Assize Court Rolls. During the Middle Ages when it was increasingly common for people to migrate from their birthplace to seek work further afield, the custom developed that they would adopt the placename as a means of identification. Variations in the spelling of the surname include Pendlebery, and Pendleberry. London Church Records list the marriage of Raffe Pendlebery to Jone Romford on May 24th 1573 at St. Michael's, Bassishaw, and the christening of Nicholas, son of Nicholas Pendlebury, in November 1578 at St. Peter's, Westcheap. John Pendlebury married Edie Windsor, on December 21st 1584 at St. Gregory by St. Paul. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Elizabeth Pendleburie, which was dated September 8th 1562, christened in Leigh, Lancashire, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1, known as "Good Queen Bess", 1558 - 1603. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.