This is a locational surname of Olde English origins. It almost certainly originates from the village of Pemble's Cross in Kent, where it is widely recorded from at least the middle 16th century. What is certain is that 'Pemble's Cross' is a dialectal Kent-Sussex transposition from the pre 7th century 'Pendle', still found in the Lancashire village of Pendle Hill, with the 'nd' being replaced by 'mb' in the local middle English dialect. Had 'Pemble's Cross' existed before Domesday Book in 1086, and of this we have no definite proof, its original pre 10th century spelling would probably have been 'Pen - dyl Cross' or similar. This would have translated as 'the enclosure (pen) by the cross on the hill (dyl)'. Examples of the surname recording include Helen Pemble who married Richard Taylar, at All Saints Church, Maidstone, Kent, Richard Pemble at St Katherin's Church by the Tower, (of London) on January 7th 1593, and Richard Pemble who married Frances Tailbey at the church of All Hallows, London Wall, on January 4th 1699, in the reign of William of Orange, 1689 - 1702. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Pemble, which was dated October 2nd 1557, who was christened at Boughton under Blean, Kent, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1, known as 'Good Queen Bess', 1558 - 1603. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.