The sept of O' Brogain belongs by origin to the Ui Fiachrach, an ancient population group of Mayo, Sligo and Galway, and possessed estates in the Barony of Carra and also at Breaghwy in Co. Mayo where, with Co. Donegal, the name is chiefly found in modern times. Ballybrogan near Athlone, Co. Roscommon, (from "baile", a town or settlement), indicated their establishment in this area also. Records state that Benedict O' Brocain was Bishop of Achonry, Dioceses of Co. Mayo from 1286 to 1312. However, evidence shows that the name was not confined to Connaught. In Munster a Mahony O' Brogan was, in 1300, among the tenants of Cahirconlish Manor, Co. Limerick, and Stpehen O' Brogan who died in 1302 was one of the more notable archbishops of Cashel. In Leinster, Broganstown, Co. Wicklow would seem to indicate a settlement of a large number of Brogans. It is suggested that the name comes from "brog" which was associated with shoemaking. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Nehemias O' Brogan, Bishop of Clogher, Ulster, which was dated circa 1227, in the "Ecclesiastical Records", during the reign of King Henry 111, known as "The Frenchman" 1216 - 1272. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.