This surname, of (Roman) Italian origins, is one of the estimated two hundred spelling forms of the ancient "Nicolas", a name found today in every European country. The name was popular amongst the early Christians who venerated the original St. Nicolas, a Lycian bishop of the 4th Century A.D., specially renowned for his reputed good works. For an ancient name associated with religion, the name has a curiously war-like meaning, deriving from "nikan" meaning "to conquer", and "laos", the people. The spelling form as Neicho is a shortened form of the Germanic "Neichold", which itself is a diminutive or patronymic (son of Neicho). The name is apparently first recorded in England in 1848, when Emma Neicho was christened at St. Botolphs without Aldgate, London, on March 5th, however there is some suggestion that the father, George Neicho, may have been from another (unknown) part of England. In Germany, the first recording as Neichold is in 1761, but the first true surname recording of all is as shown below. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Nicole, which was dated 1230, in the "Pipe Rolls of the City of London", during the reign of King Henry 111, known as "The Frenchman", 1216 - 1272. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.