This rare and unusual name is of Italian origin from the town of Bologna where it is recorded heraldically under the spelling of Mattioli. The Coat of Arms of a lion rampant of a silver field with two red roses between its paws is dated circa 1580. The name is first recorded in East Anglia (Norfolk) at the end of the 18th Century, the original name holders were probably victims of the Napoleonic wars (1794 - 1815). The name itself is a patronymic derived from the ancient Hebrew name 'Matthew', first recorded in Rome in the 3rd Century A.D., but not found any where as a surname before the 12th Century. In England the recordings include Frederick Mattholi who married Mary Anne Smith at Eastry, Kent on February 25th 1877, who may be the Frederick Mattholi christened at Roydon on November 9th 1845, and grandson of the original name holder. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Michael Mattholi, which was dated April 24th 1798, christened at Roydon, during the reign of King George III, Farmer George, 1760 - 1820. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.