This most interesting and unusual surname is a Czechoslovakian name which is closely related to "Markov", a Russian patronymic of the surname "Mark". Mark itself derives from the Latin personal name "Marcus", the name borne by St. Mark the Evangelist, author of the second Gospel, and is also an old Roman name, which may have had some connection with "Mars", the god of War. The name was popular on the continent, especially in Italy, in the Middle Ages, as St. Mark was the patron saint of Venice and the Venetian Republic. Other patronymic surnames from this source include Marquez (Spain), Marcussen, Marxssen (Germany), Markovich (Ukraine), Markov (Bulgaria) as well as Markowicz and Marczak (Poland). Early recordings of the surname include: the birth of Johanna, daughter of Anna Markova, on March 2nd 1709 at Otnice, Vyskov, Czechoslovakia; the marriage of Apolonia Markova and Frantisek Pelay on June 5th 1735, also at Otnice, Vyskov; and the birth of Josef Markova, son of Katerina Markova, in 1785 at Brestek, Hradiste Uherske, Czechoslovakia. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Anezeka Markova, which was dated May 26th 1618, marriage to Adam Skrivacek at Budgejovice, Ceske, in Czechoslovakia, during the reign of Emperor Matthiaa, Holy Roman Emperor, 1612 - 1619. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.