This rare and unusual name is found in a variety of spellings, one of which at least is of Huguenot refugee status. We are of the opinion that there are two distinct sources, the first being Olde English pre 10th Century, and deriving from some now "lost", pre-medieval village, probably called "Maneahlaw", or similar and meaning "the place (ea) of common land (mane) on the hill (hlaw)", the element "mane" being found in (for instance) - Manchester, meaning "the fort by the common land". The second probability is a derived form of the Italian "Mantello", and describes a maker of cloaks or head dresses (Mantilla). In this latter case we have the recording of Magdelen Manketell, the daughter of Zacharie, a Huguenot christened at St. Martin Ongars Church, London, on June 1st 1755. Other recordings include: Stephen Mankelow, who married Margrett Young at Rochester, Kent, on June 8th 1669, and Jane Mancktelow, who married Daniel Terry at Yalding, Kent, on March 27th 1733. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Elizabeth Mountlowe, which was dated July 10th 1547, christened at Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London, during the reign of King Edward V1, known as "The Boy King", 1547 - 1554. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.