This name is an anglicized form of the Gaelic O Madaidhin which means 'the descendant of Madaidhin' - a personal name from the diminutive of 'mada' or 'madra' meaning a hound or dog. The Gaelic 'O' means grandson or male descendant. The more usual anglicization of the name is Madden, and the prefix 'O' was dropped in Ireland during the centuries of English rule and did not share in the widespread resumption of 'O' and 'Mac' (a son) since the Gaelic revival. The Maddes are most numerous in counties Galway and Offaly. Modern spelling variations of the name include Madine, Madden, (O)Madagane, Maddigan, with the Gaelic O Madagain. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Rev. Samuel Madden. which was dated 1686 - 1765 B.A. Dublin 1705. during the reign of King James 11 nickname The Last Catholic King 1685 - 1688. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.