This interesting name is of Scottish origin, and derives from the Old Gaelic "toisech" which has the meaning "chief, leader" or "front man". In modern Gaelic the spelling is "Taoiseach" (the title given to the Irish head of Government). The word also occurs in Old Welsh as a proper name, "Torisaci", and in modern Welsh is found as "tywysog", prince. There appears to have been two original septs of this name, one in Perthshire and the other in Inverness. In 1468, Laichlan Mackyntoich witnessed a charter by Alexander, Earl of Huntlie, to Alexander Stewart of Granetuly, and Duncan McYntosh was captain of Clancattan in 1492. In 1528, James V issued a mandate ordering the death of all men of the McIntosh clan. In the modern idiom the surname has several spelling variants including MacKintosh, MacIntosh and McIntosh. Probably the most familiar bearer of the name is Charles McIntosh (1766 - 1843), who invented the waterproofing of cloth with a rubber solution; hence, the garment "a macintosh". Donald Macintosh, keeper of the Gaelic records to the Highland Society of Scotland, 1801, compiled, "A Collection of Gaelic Proverbs", the first ever made. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Farchard McToschy, which was dated 1382, in "Parliament Records of Scotland", during the reign of King Robert 11 of Scotland, 1371 - 1390. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.