Recorded in several forms including the unusual Keepence, and more usually Keppin, Kippin, Kipping, and Kippins, this is an Anglo-Scottish surname of two quite distinct origins which in some areas have become confused. The first is from the pre 7th century personal name Cypping, a derivative of "kupp", meaning swollen, and originally given as a nickname to one of rotund appearance. Alwinus filius Cheping was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 for Berkshire, and Mafrei filius Kipping in the Pipe Rolls of Northumberland in 1170. A later example is that of Herman Kyppyn who married Faith Ethridge in London in 1591, and Alexander Keepence at Pentonville, London, on April 20th 1863. The second possible origin is Scottish and of locational origin from Kippen, a village near Stirling. Thomas Kippen of Machanie was recorded in the Documents relating to the abbey of Inchaffray, in 1630 whilst on October 21st 1824, Horatio Neilson Kippen was christened in St. Ninians, Stirlingshire. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard Kipping. This was was dated 1195, in the Pipe Rolls of Warwickshire, during the reign of King Richard 1st, known as "The Lionheart", 1189 - 1199. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.