This interesting name is of Scottish territorial origin from the barony of the same name in Perthshire, so called from the Gaelic "ceann" meaning "head" or summit, plus "ard", high. The surname from this source was first recorded in the latter part of the 12th Century, (see below). Between 1204 and 1214, there is a record of a royal confirmation of a grant by Richard of Kinnard, grandson of Radulphus "Ruffus". One, Rauf de Kynnard swore loyalty to Edward 1 of England at Kincardine in 1296. Attached to his homage is a seal bearing a shield charged with a saltier, cantoned with four crosses. William de Kynard was burgess of Perth in 1428 and a Thomas de Kynnarde was a notary of St. Andrews diocese in 1430. Interesting namebearers were George Patrick Kinnaird, first baron Kinnaird (deceased 1689), supporter of Charles 11, knighted 1661, and Douglas Kinnaird (1788 - 1830), friend of Byron, who assumed chief management of Ransom's bank, 1819. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Radulphus Ruffus de Kinnard, which was dated circa 1180, "Genealogical collections concerning families in Scotland", during the reign of King William, "The Lion" of Scotland, 1165 - 1214. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.