The holders of this name are no doubt, pleased to know that their predecessors were not professional assassins, but were German "Associates" of the famous Irish Clan "Kelly". This pre-medieval name derives originally from the Gaelic "Ceallach" which translates as "the Brightheaded one", a refernece to fair hair. The name was borne by an early Irish Saint who in the 7th Century lead a Christian mission through Europe, and from this popular man arose many European variant surnames including Killiam, Kilius, Killgus and Kill (all German) and Kiljan, Kiljansk (Polish), Kilian (Chzech). In England the name is found in the spelling Kill, Keale, Keele, Keil and Keile, although there is overlap with the medieval "Kele" a boatman. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Edward Kill, which was dated 1703, witness at St. Martins in the Field, Westminster, during the reign of Queen Anne, known as "The Last Stuart Monarch" 1702 - 1714. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.