This interesting and unusual medieval English surname is of Norman French origin, and is locational from a place called "Caillovet-Orgeville" in Eure, France, and is derived from the Old Norman French "cail(ou)" for a pebble. Kelway is a dialectal variant of this placename, which was probably introduced into England after the Norman Conquest of 1066, and the variants in the modern idiom include Callaway, Calloway Calway, Kellaway, and Kelleway. Tytherton - Kellaways (or Kelways) in Wiltshire gets its name from the above place also. Two notable namebearers listed in the National Biography are brothers Joseph Kelway (deceased 1782) and Thomas Kelway (deceased 1749) were both organists of renown. The name development includes Elyas de Kaylewe in 1255. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Philip de Chailewai, which was dated 1165, in the "Pipe Rolls of Gloucester", during the reign of King Henry 11, known as "The Builder of Churches", 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.