Kaemena is an unusual spelling of the Germanic-Polish surname "Kemena", itself a variant form of the ancient "Kamien". This is essentially a Polish word meaning "stone" and in the surname context is either habitational for one who dwelt at a house built of stone or one with a stone fireplace, or maybe a locational name for a former inhabitant of a town such as Kamienic in Silesia. The name may also be job descriptive for a skilled mason or carver, who worked in stone. The usual spellings are Kamien, Kamen, Kamin, Kemena (German), Kaminski, Kemienski (Poland) and Kamenar (Czech). The name is also found in the Ukraine (Kamin) and in Yugoslavia as Kamen. The Coat of Arms most associated with the name has a Gold and Silver Battle-axe on a red field. The name recordings include Anne Kaemenar who married Johann Buerstedt at Werther, Westfalen, Germany, on October 30th 1829, whilst Johann Kamena married Sophie Boeking on March 23rd 1879, at Heimsen, Westfalen. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Caspar Kemena which was dated January 20th 1692, who married Maria Dahlaus at Schwelm, Westfalen, Germany, during the reign of Emperor Leopold 1st of the Holy Roman Empire 1665 - 1705. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.