This is a patronymic i.e. "the son of Juke", itself a diminutive form of Jukel or Jokel from the Olde Celtic personal name Judicael meaning "bountiful lord". The name is first recorded as Judichel in the Domesday Book of 1086 for Cambridgeshire. One, Jukel de Vertheburc appears in the Gilbertine House Records of Lincolnshire, dated 1182. The surnames Jock and Jockel appear in 1279 and 1296 respectively. The patronymic form is first recorded in the latter half of the 14th Century, (see below). The final "s" attached to the name is a reduced form of "son of". On January 28th 1613, Winifride Jukes married a Thomas Mahon at St. Margarets, Westminster and on June 19th 1696 Mary Jukes, an infant was christened at St. Dunstan, Stepney. The modern surname is recorded as Jukes, Jewks, Juckes and Jewkes. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Jokes. which was dated 1381, in the "Subsidy Rolls of Staffordshire". during the reign of King Richard 11, known as "Richard of Bordeaux", 1377 - 1399. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.