This unusual surname has its origins in the Olde French personal name "Jacques", the Equivalent of the English and Scottish form "Jack". The ultimate derivation of the name is from the Hebrew given name "Yaakov", popularly interpreted to mean "he supplanted" referring to the Biblical tale of Jacob and Esau. There were two Latin forms "Jacobus" and "Jacomus", giving the modern forms Jacob and James. "Jacques" was the usual French form of "Jacobus" and is thought to have been introduced into England in the 13th Century as in "Jakes Amadur", (1275, London). Other forms of the modern surname are Jacquet, Jaques, Jaquest and Jaquiss, the last two being English forms. John Jacques was christened in July 1675 at St. Martin-in-the-Fields, London. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Roberte Jaques, christened, which was dated 1st May 1559, St. Botolph without Aldgate, London. during the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1, known as "Good Queen Bess", 1558 - 1603. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.