This interesting surname of Scottish and Irish origin is an Anglicized form of the Gaelic "Mac Giolla Aindreis", which is composed of the elements "mac" meaning son of, "giolla" servant of, plus "Aindreis" the personal name Andrew; hence "son of the servant of Andrew". Itself from the Greek "Andreas" meaning "manly" and was the name by which the first of Jesus Christ's disciples is known. The disciple is the patron saint of Scotland, and there is a legend that his relics were brought to Scotland in the 4th Century by a certain St. Regulus. The name was formerly a favourite personal name, Gillendrias Mac Matni was a witness to King David's protection to the Clerics of Deer (circa 1150). The surname was first recorded in the latter half of the 12th Century (see below). Dungal Mac Gilendres was juror on an Inquest held at Gerwan in 1260. On November 7th 1708, William, son of Alexander and Margaret Gillanders, was christened at St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh, Midlothian and the marriage of Joseph Gillanders and Susanna Mason took place at St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster, London on December 17th 1756. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Gilleasald Mac Gilleandris, which was dated 1190, Records of Edinburgh, Scotland, during the reign of King William the Lion of Scotland, 1165 - 1214. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.