This long-established surname is of dual derivation in England, being either a topographical name from residence by a triangular-shaped piece of land, deriving from the Olde English pre 7th Century "gara", triangular piece of land, with "land", land, or a locational name from Garland, a minor place in Chumleigh, Devonshire, so called from the above elements. Alternatively, Garland may have originated as a metonymic occupational name for a maker of garlands of chaplets, deriving from the 13th Century ld French. Early examples of the surname form the former source include: William de Garland (Essex, 1208), and Robert de Garlande (Yorkshire, 1225). Recordings from the latter source are: William le Garlaunde (London, 1275), and Adam Garlaund (Essex, 1293). In Ireland, the surname Garland has an interesting development, the earliest form of the name being Gernon which was introduced by Roger de Gernon who accompanied Strongbow in the Anglo-Norman Invasion of 1170. "Gernon" originated as a nickname for someone who wore a moustache, from the Old French "gernon", moustache, and the curious transition from Gernon to Garland included Garlan and Gearlon, as is evidenced in the 13th Century Dowdall Deeds Records of Counties Louth and Meath. Roger Gernon or Garland was sheriff of County Louth in 1578. A Coat of Arms granted to the Garland family in 1620 is a gold shield with three red pales, on a chief per pale red and black, a chaplet and a demi lion issuant silver. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John de Garland(e), which was dated 1190, in the "Pipe Rolls of Hampshire", during the reign of King Richard 1, known as "Richard the Lionheart", 1189 - 1199. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.