This surname of English origin is derived from the Old Norse Viking pre 7th Century byname Gamall meaning "old". The personal name Gamel is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. The surname dates back to the early 13th Century, (see below). Further recordings include Adam Gamel (1260) "Assize Rolls of Yorkshire", and Jordan Gambel (1297) "The Ministers Accounts of the Earldom of Cornwall". Variations in the idiom of the spelling include Gambell, Gamell and Gammil, and the Scottish forms Gemmell and Gemmill, while the patronymic form is Gambles. One, John Gambell married Margery on November 27th 1545 at Christ Church Greyfriars, Newgate, London. Mary, daughter of Thomas Gambolle, was christened at St. Michael, Bassishaw, London on March 3rd 1594. James Gamble married Elizabeth Leech at St. Dunstan, Stepney on August, 10th 1607. John Gamble (died 1687) a musician in Chapel Royal and composer, published many works. Robert Gamble, aged 34, a famine emigrant, sailed aboard the Ohio from Liverpool to New York on October 1st 1846, together with his wife Jane (34) sons William (10), James (6), Hugh (4) and daughters Margarett (8) and Isabell (2). The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Simon Gamel, which was dated 1202, in the "Assize Rolls of Lincolnshire", during the reign of King John, known as "Lackland", 1199 - 1216. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.