This most interesting surname is of early medieval German origin, and is an ethnic name for someone who came from Flanders and settled in Germany, from the German word "flamisch", an adjective which describes something Flemish, and "Flamisch(e)", a Flemish person. The surname is cognate with the English surname "Fleming", a popular name in the Furness district (Cumberland), which has the same meaning as above, from the Olde French "Flamanc", a Fleming. The surname is first recorded in Cologne in the early 12th Century (see below), while other early examples of the surname in German Church Registers include: the birth of a daughter Catharina, to Hans Flemisch in 1640, at Schmalkalden, Hessen-Nassau; the marriage of Erasmus Flemmich and Rosina Voight in 1667, at Aue, Zwickau, Sachsen; and the birth of Eva Rosina, daughter of Hans Flemmich on February 7th 1640, at Hundschuebel, Zwichau, Sachsen. Ann, daughter of John Christopher and Ann Flemmich, was christened on June 5th 1757, at All Hallows the Less, London. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ilias Flaminc, which was dated 1135, in the "Medieval Records of Cologne", during the reign of Emperor Lothar 11, Holy Roman Emperor, 1125 - 1137. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.