This name derives from the Latin Eustacius itself coming from the Greek "Eustakhios" meaning "fruitful". St. Eustace, was a Roman martyr who, while hunting near Tivoli was converted to christianity by a vision of a crucifix between the antlers of a hunted stag. The name Eustachius (without surname) is first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 for Hampshire. The surname appears in the latter half of the 13th Century (see below). Modern variants of the name are found as Ewestace, Eustes, Eustis and Eustice. One, Margery Eustace is recorded in the 1296 "Records of the Earldom of Cornwall" and a Robert Ewstace in the "Register of Oxford University", dated 1513. Interesting namebearers were Roland (Fitz) Eustace Chancellor in Ireland 1472 - 1482 and participator in the Lambert Simnel rebellion, 1487. John Eustace (1762 - 1815) was a classical antiquary and friend of Edmund Burke. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard Eustase, which was dated 1275, in the "Subsidy Rolls of Worcestershire", during the reign of King Edward 1, known as "The Hammer of the Scots", 1272 - 1307. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.