This unusual surname may be described as of Ancient Greek derivation, although its origins as a surname are pure middle English and probably from the London area. The surname is a dialectal form of 'Andreas', a name of great popularity which developed into 'Andrew' and became subsequently the name of the patron saint of Scotland. The name translates as 'manly' a meaning which no doubt contributed greatly to its rapid spread from its introduction by the Crusaders in the 12th century. Most popular baptismal names developed nickname forms, indeed the production of nicknames could well be described as the 'academic pursuit' of the Medieval period. It is not clear how many names derive from 'Andreas' but it is certainly into the hundreds of examples. In this case the development seems to have been from Andreas, to Andrew, and then to Andro (1399), Andrus (1510), Anders (1610) and Enders. The first 'Andreas' recordings (as a baptismal name) is in the 1086 Domesday Book, whilst it is first recorded in Scotland in 1242. Examples of the later surname recordings include Richard Ender, son of James and Judith Ender, christened at St Dunstans Church, Stepney, on July 20th 1679, whilst on October 28th 1833, John Enders married Louise Adele Elizabeth Hoffman, at St Ann's Soho, Westminster. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Moricus Andrewes, which was dated 1275, in the Subsidy Rolls of Worcester, during the reign of King Edward 1, known as 'The hammer of the Scots', 1272 - 1307. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.