Recorded in many forms as shown below, this is an English and sometimes Scottish patronymic surname. It derives from the Old English pre 7th century name "Eadmund", composed of the elements "ead", prosperity or fortune, and "-mund", a protector. In medieval England and France the name was often bestowed in honour of the East Anglian king known as St. Edmund the Martyr, who was killed by pagan Danish invaders in 869 a.d.. The name development since 1210 (see below) includes examples such as John Edmond of Worcestershire in 1275, Sibil Edmund also of Worcestershire, William Admend of Cambridgeshire in 1349, and Robert Edmondson of Yorkshire in 1379. The modern surname can be found as Edmans, Edmands, Edmends, Edmonds, Edmons, Edmunds, Edmondson, Edmundson and possibly others. An interesting namebearer was Sir William Edmonds, who was a Scottish colonel in the Dutch service; he was killed during the defence of Rhineberg in 1606, whilst Henry, the son of Henry and Jane Edmonds, was christened on September 10th 1749 at All Hallows church, London Wall. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Nicholaus Edmundus. This was dated 1210, in the Curia Regis Rolls of Cambridgeshire, during the reign of King John of England, 1199 - 1216. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as the Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.