Recorded in a wide variety of spellings include Ciccolo, Cicconi, Ciccerale, Ciccarelli and Ciccarello, this is an Italian surname of Roman-Latin origins. It derives from the personal name "Franciscus", which was originally an ethnic name used to describe a "Frank", later to be known as a "Frenchman". Perhaps surprisingly it became a personal name of the 5th century a.d., with the meaning of "a free man". In the latter days of the Roman Empire, the Romans were permanently at war with the Franks, and it may be that at this time the name was used as a derogatory term by the Romans, for somebody who claimed to be a free man. Be that as it may the later surname, which dated from the 12th century, became hugely popular world wide, there being over two hundred spellings! These range from the English Francis and Franses, the French Francois and Frances, the Spanish and Italian Francisco and Francie, and diminutives such as Franzel (Germany), the Italian Scotti, Ciccolini and Zecchi, and the patronymics Francesconi (Italy), Franssen (Germany), Franson (England), and the Polish Franciskiewicz . The popularity of "Franciscus" it is said, was due in large measure to the fame of St. Francis of Assisi (1187 - 1226), however the name was also associated with the Knight Templars (Crusaders) of the 12th century. The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of Hugo Francus, which was dated 1135, in the register of Oseney Abbey, Oxfordshire, England, during the reign of King Henry 1, known as "The Lion of Justice", 1100 - 1135. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop", often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.