Derived from the Anglo-Saxon and Olde English Chellton meaning 'the dweller at the chalk farm', from 'celce-tun', the name has developed through Chelsum, a name recorded heraldically from Droxford in Hampshire, to the present spelling. At all times rare, the name has been associated with Chelsea, but there is no connection. The Coat of Arms is black with an engrailed fesse between three wheatsheaves, all in gold. The first recorded name holder was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, and although appointed to the Church, preferred publishing. He died insane. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of James Chelsum B.A. which was dated 1740-1801 Publisher of Religious Books during the reign of King George 111 Farmer George 1760-1820 Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.