Recorded in several spellings as shown below, this interesting surname is of early medieval English origin. It is occupational for a maker or seller of candles. The derivation is from the Middle English "cha(u)ndeler", ultimately from the Old French "chandelier", Late Latin "candelarius", a derivative of "candela" a candle, from "candere" to be bright, with the agent suffix "- er", one who does or works with (something). The name may also, more rarely, have denoted someone who was responsible for the lighting arrangements in a large house, or else one who owed rent in the form of wax or candles. Job-descriptive surnames originally denoted the actual occupation of the namebearer, and later became hereditary. The surname is first recorded in the latter half of the 13th Century (see below), and can be found as Chandlar, Chandler, Chantler and Candler. On February 13th 1562, the marriage of William Chandler and Agnes Gibbs took place at the Church of Harrow on the Hill, London. One of the earliest settlers in the new World was Arthur Chandler, who was recorded as living in Virginia on February 16th 1623. A Coat of Arms granted to the family is a silver shield with two black bendlets between five pellets in saltire, the Crest being a black bull's head attired silver. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Matthew le Candeler, which was dated 1274, in the "Hundred Rolls of London", during the reign of King Edward 1, known as "The Hammer of the Scots", 1272-1307. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.