Apparently recorded as Chandos, the family name of the Viscounts Lyttelton, and Chander, Channder, Chanders, Shand, and Shaunde, this interesting and unusual surname has at least two confused origins. Firstly and in England most likely, it is of Norman-French origin, introduced into England at the Conquest of 1066. If so this was a locational name from the town of Chandai in the departement of Orne. The place name was derived from the Roman personal name Candius. Secondly the surname certainly in Scotland, may be a short form of the famous personal name Alexander. This given name was introduced into Scotland earlier than into England, when Queen Margaret of Scotland, in the 11th Century, christened her third son Alexander, and thereby ensured its popularity. In due course he became King Alexander 1st, 1107 - 1124. Early examples of recordings include Sir John Chandos who was killed in France in 1370, whilst with Edward, the Black Prince, Magister Robert Shaunde who was prebendary of Arnaldton, Scotland, in 1522, Richard Chanders who was christened at St Mary Whitechapel, in the city of London, on October 6th 1616, and Thomas Shand who was christened on February 28th 1549, at Howden, Yorkshire. The first recorded spelling of the family name is possibly that of Hugo de Sandelia, of Bedford in the year 1202. This was during the reign of King John of England, 1199 - 1216. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was sometimes known as the Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.