This ancient surname is ultimately of Old Welsh origin; it is derived from the Anglo-Saxon personal name "Ceadd(a)", adopted from the Old Welsh "cad", battle, defence. This was the name borne by a 7th Century monk of Lindisfarne who became Bishop of the Mercians, and fixed his seat at Lichfield; his subsequent fame ensured that the personal name enjoyed some popularity. It is recorded in the Staffordshire Hundred Rolls of 1275 as "Cedda", and early examples of the surname include Ralph Chad, in the 1219 Assize Court Rolls of Yorkshire; Henry Ced, in the 1349 Poll Tax Returns of Yorkshire; and Roger Chadde, listed in the University of Oxford's Register for 1518. The modern surname can be found as Chad, Chadd and Chadde, and recordings from London Church Registers include the marriage of William Chadd and Phillis Stephens, at St. Dunstan's, Stepney, on May 28th 1606, and the christening of Mary, daughter of Richard and Ann Chadd, on November 17th 1695, at Christchurch, Greyfriars, Newgate. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hugo Chadde, which was dated 1190, in the "Pipe Rolls of Warwickshire", during the reign of King Richard 1, known as "Richard the Lionheart", 1189 - 1199. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.