Recorded in many spellings including Caldwell, Caudwell, Cawdwell, Caulwell, Coldwell, Couldwell, Cholwell, and the dialectals Scaldwell and Skaldwell, this is a medieval Anglo-Scottish surname. In all cases it is locational. If Scottish it originates from the estate lnown as the lands of Caldwell in Renfrewshire, and if English from any of the places called Caldwell, Chadwell or Cauldwell in the counties of North Yorkshire,Warwickshire, Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, and possibly others. The place in Yorkshire is recorded as "Caldeuuella" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and shares with all the other places mentioned, the same meaning and derivation. This is from the Olde English pre 7th Century "cald", meaning cold, and "wella" a spring or stream; hence "cold stream". Early examples of the surname recording include: William de Caldewell of Renfrew in 1342, whilst in England Richard de Coldewell is noted in the Poll Tax returns of Yorkshire in 1379, and Robert Cauldwell was a Scottish merchant, who obtained permission to travel to London, in 1405. Examples taken from surviving registers of the diocese of Greater London include: the marriage of Robert Coldwell and Agnes Hanshawe on May 1st 1547, at the Church of St. Mary le Bow; and the marriage of John Scaldwell to Margaret Jackson at St Olaves church in the city of London, on June 9th 1690. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Adam de Caldwella, which was dated 1195, in the "Pipe Rolls of Derbyshire", during the reign of King Richard 1, known as "The Lionheart", 1189 - 1199. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.