This apparently "English" name is in fact a strange variant spelling of the Irish MacCawell. In the period from 1650 to 1850 it was common in Ireland to revert from the Gaelic to an English form of spelling but this is an extreme example. However to add to the confusion there was originally a "planter" family in Ireland who did originate in England and who were registered as "Caulifield" but in the original baptism, the name was calfehill. Be that as it may the original name holders were given large estates in Ulster in 1607 and was ultimately created Lord Charlemont. Other name holders included James Caulfield (circa 1740 - 1810) Catholic Bishops of Ferns, and Richard Caulfield (1823 - 1887). The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Sir Toby Caulfield, which was dated 1565, Baptised in Oxford with the surname "Calfehill", during the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1, known as "Good Queen Bess" 1558 - 1603. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.