Recorded in the spellings of Castilla, Castillo, Castela, Castille, Castiglioni, Castiglione, Castillion, etc., this is a locational or regional surname which derives from the former independent kingdom of Castille, now a province within Spain. Curiously the name was originally French, the name deriving from the pre 10th century Provencal 'castel' (a castel) and vieil, meaning old, the old castle. 'Castille' was an area which was under continuous occupation from the time of the Romans who held it for three centuries, down through the Vizigoths, the Franks and later the Moors. In consequence the region was full of castles, the province name reflecting this fact. Not surprisingly the surname was an early entry into the New World of the Americas, and examples of these early recordings include Penaflor Castillo, at San Bernardino, Xochimilco, Mexico, on March 8th 1708, Arrieta Castilla onb December 22nd 1706 at the same place. Josef Castillo married Maria Sinoba Bojorquez at Santa Barbara, California, on November 30th 1805, and Joe Matusa Castila, at Pomonala, Los Angeles, on October 19th 1933. The coat of arms has the blazon of, a blue field, charged with a silver castle on a green mount. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Antonia Castillo, which was dated July 12th 1678, at Asuncion, Districto Federal, Mexico, during the reign of King Charles 11 of Spain, Emperor of Mexico, 1665 - 1700. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.