This interesting name, with variant spellings Carrothers, Carrodus, Carradice, Cardus, Crothers, Cruddace and Crowdace, is of Scottish territorial origin from the lands of Carruthers in the parish of Middlebie, Dumfriesshire. The placename, recorded as "Caer Ruther" circa 1300, derives from the British "ker", a fort, plus an ancient personal name composed of elements meaning "red", and "king". British, in this case, refers to the extinct Celtic language of the ancient Britons, and the personal name in question is believed to be that of King Rydderch or Roderc of Adamnan. The surname was first recorded in the late 13th Century (see below), and other early recordings include: Thomas de Carutherys, who received a charter of the whole lands of Musfald and Appiltretwayt, circa 1320; Nigel de Carrothorys, canon of Glasgow (1351); and John Carruthers, keeper of Louchmabane Castle in 1446. In the 13th Century the family of Carruthers held the hereditary stewardship of Annandale under the Bruces. A Coat of Arms granted to a Carruthers family, from Howmains, is two gold chevrons engrailed between three gold fleur-de-lis on a red shield, the Crest being a seraphim volant proper. The Motto, "Promptus et fidelis", translates as, "Ready and faithful". The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Simon Carruthers, parson of Middlebie, which was dated circa 1272 - 1307, in "Historical Manuscripts of Great Britain", during the reign of King Edward 1, known as "The Hammer of the Scots", 1272 - 1307. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.