This interesting and unusual name of Medieval Scottish origin is a phonetic variant of the locational name Carruthers, itself from lands in the parish of Middlebie, Dumfriesshire, and pronounced in local speech "Cridders". the derivation of this surname is from the British (pre Roman) "ker", or the welsh "caer", meaning a fort, with a personal name, composed of the elements "red" and "ruler" possible "fort of Rydderch" the King Roderc of Adamnan. The family of Carruthers were in the thirteenth Century Stewards of Annandale, under the Bruces. Locational surnames were developed when former inhabitants of a place moved to another area, usually to seek work, and were best identified by the name of their birthplace. The name is recorded circa 1350 as "Caer Ruther", and the modern variants include Crothers, Carrodus, Cardis, Cruddace, and Caruth. One Bertha Cruddas is recorded in 1888, (Bardsley). The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Simon Carruthers, (parson), which was dated 1278, in Middlebie, Dumfreishire, Scotland, during the reign of King Alexander 111, known as "King of Scotland", 1249 - 1286. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.