This interesting surname has two origins. Firstly, it may be from an occupational name for a person who gave a smooth finish to freshly woven cloth by passing it between heavy rollers to compress the weave. The English term for such a worker, Calander, is from the Old French "calandrier", "calandreur", from the verb "calandrer", of uncertain etymology, but it is likely that it comes from the Latin "colendrare", a derivative of "colendra", meaning "roller". Job-descriptive surname originally denoted the occupation of the namebearer, and later became hereditary. Secondly, it may be locational from either of two places called Callander, near Falkirk and Perth. The original form and meaning of both placenames is unclear. The surname was first recorded in the mid 13th Century (see below), and Bartholomew le Calendrer was recorded in the 1311 Calendar of Letter Books of the City of London. In the modern idiom the surname can be found recorded as Callendar, Callender, Calender, Calendar and Callander. Recordings from London Church Registers include: the marriage of Elizabeth Kallender and Nicholas Jones on August 13th 1600, at St. Dunstan's, Stepney, and the christening of Margaret, daughter of Paul Callender, at St. Margaret's, Westminster, in September 1604. The family Coat of Arms is on a black shield three gold mullets in chief, the Crest being two elephants' probosces, endorsed, per fesse red and gold. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Alwyn de Calyntyr, which was dated circa 1248, witnessed a grant by Maldoueny, Earl of Lennox, Scotland, during the reign of King Alexander 11 of Scotland, 1214 - 1249. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.